Bookbinding

The Land of Washi — A Visit to Mino City in Gifu Prefecture, Japan

Last month, my fiancee and I decided to take a whirlwind tour around Japan’s Kansai area. Taking advantage of the relatively weak yen and the affordable JR Tourist Pass for Takayama-Hokuriku region, we had great fun traversing long-anticipated historic and picturesque cities such as Nara, Kyoto, Kanazawa, Gifu, Nagoya and of course, Osaka.

The journey would not be complete without making the necessary pilgrimage to shops selling washi paper and chiyogami. There are big established stores such as Tokyu Hands in most cities selling a wide range of decorative paper products. Fellow bookbinder, ST Leng of Bukurama has a comprehesive blog post on where to look for bookbinding materials and papers in Tokyo.

However, it is also satisfying to look for the source where these papers come from. That reclusive village where great masters gather to make papers in the traditional methods. There are a few such villages / towns in Japan. One of them is Mino City. It is one of the three communities in Japan which still carries out the traditional craft of hand-making paper. The other two being Misumi-cho in Hamafa City and Ogawa Town in Saitama Prefecture. The art of paper making is an elaborate one. It starts from soaking the mulberry plant in clear river water. Through many processes, it concludes with the setting of a thin layer of  fibre on a bamboo screen to make washi paper. This technique is so intricate and well-preserved through generations, it was inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2014. Fresh from the exuberance of having a world recognised skill in the old city, there are congratulatory banners everywhere in the city.

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Knowing that Mino City will definitely be worth a visit, we took the route prescribed by the JR pass. Taking a bus from Kanazawa City to Takayama, we passed through the World Heritage Site of Shirakawago Village. The detour was well-worth the effort as the mountainous village still retain its traditional thatched roof architecture. The temperature there was also much colder than the lowlands, which meant that while sakura flowers were in full bloom in Osaka and Kanazawa, there was still snow everywhere in Shirakawago. From Takayama, it was another 1 hour train ride to Mino City.

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The attraction of Mino City is doubtlessly its well-preserved architecture. Due to the success of Mino Washi production, the downtown area flourished to include many large homes lined with Udatsu (decorative fire wall). This area, known as Mino-machi, is located on top of a hill which made it resistant to floods and earthquakes but put it at a distance to the river in case of a fire. There fore, people constructed Udatasu firewalls on both sides of the roof, widened the street and enshrined hibusegami (god of fire prevention) on the roof. Each Udatsu is decorated with the family crests and Mushiko windows (small windows designed to look like butterfly catchers). In the evenings starting mid-October till the end of November, the Udatsu streets are lined with lamps made from Mino Washi. Spotlights shine on the homes while the street glows with the warmth of washi lanterns.Though I missed the lanterns, there are some permanent washi lanterns at the train station as well.

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Almost every other shop in the town sells something related to washi paper. The most comprehensive however, must be the Mino Washi Paper Museum located about 8km outside the city. It contains two main hall, the first hall introduces the history and technique of washi paper made in Mino vis-a-vis those made in other parts of Japan/the world, while the second hall showcases the varied uses of washi in Japanese culture, from screen walls to lacquered paper clogs.

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The other attraction of the museum is the opportunity to learn how to make mino washi. Participants simply had to buy a package ticket from the museum which included admission, hands-on workshop and lunch at the museum restaurant. The total cost per participant is merely 1500 yen and the delicious lunch definitely cost more than this price in bigger cities.

The paper making workshop itself took about 30 min and it involved moving the bamboo sieve (keta in japanese) in a suspended mixture of mulberry fibres over a fine bamboo screen (su). The completed washi paper is then carefully removed using a soft brush and transferred to a hot surface to dry.

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The museum also serves as a showroom of washi paper made by grandmasters. Each of these speciality papers are labelled with details of the master and where his or her workshop is based. Apart from traditional washi, the museum also sells decorative patterned washi as well as tools for paper backing and calligraphy.

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If you are a paper lover and connoisseur, Mino City in Gifu Prefecture is a must-go destination during your next Japan trip!

From Magna Charta to Singapore’s Constitution

Recently, I had the privilege to work on the restoration of two antiquarian books owned by a local law professor.

The two completed books. On left, the Spirit of Magna Charta and the Constitutional Proposal for the Federation of Malaya

These books, The Spirit of Magna Charta (1841, bound by Wildy & Sons, Lincoln’s Inn, London) and Constitutional Proposal for the Federation of Malaya (1957, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London) represented two important points in the history of UK Law.

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Original condition of The Spirit of Magna Charta (1841)

The 1841 book was a treatise on the importance of the Magna Charta, which was sealed by King John under pressure from rebelling barons on 15 June 1215. The document effectively placed a limitation on arbitrary royal authority and sought to establish that the king was subject to the law and not above it. Over the many centuries, it was seen as a symbol of struggle for liberty and the strive for greater democracy. The American revolutionists, the 19th century England working class and even the new pioneers of Australia all saw it as a “People’s Charter” and the basis of their own country’s law to recognise the rights and will of the people.

This awareness and respect for the Magna Charta underlined UK’s efforts to progressive grant independence to colonies worldwide, including Malaya. In 1946, 11 states in Peninsular Malaya came together to form a single British Crown Colony known as the Malayan Union. UK continued to enjoy strong, amicable ties with Malaya throughout the entire period of the Malayan Emergency until it was confident enough that communism was no longer a threat in Malaya and hence independence was granted.

Original Condition for Constitutional Proposal for the Federation of Malaya (1957)

The newly-formed Federation of Malaya achieved independence within the Commonwealth of Nations on 31 August 1957 with the passing of Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957. The new constitution for the Federation was drafted jointly by law practitioners in UK and Malaya with inputs from international experts, culminating in the Constitutional Proposal for the Federation of Malaya.

When Singapore joined Malaya in 1963, the Federation Constitution was adopted and when the island gained independence in 1965, part of the constitution remained and was refined to become our own State Constitution. Hence, the proposal could be seen as the genesis of Singapore’s Constitution as well.

The two books came to me as pamphlet sections bounded together using metal staples. The 1841 book was definitely in a worse condition than the 1957 one but notwithstanding, the ferrous metal staples had corroded over the years and had become weak and friable, leaving a bright orange stain on sections of both books. The staples were removed and parts of each folio affected by corrosion were cleaned and patched up using lightweight repair papers.

Damage caused by metal staples (left) and the repaired sections

Once strengthened, the sections were hand-sewn using French-link stitch on tapes. The completed text blocks were then glued, rounded and backed to create a rounded book spine. The client had requested for a traditional look for the two books, hence quarter leather binding was chosen. The calf skins, in black and red, were pared down and pasted onto the spine. This was then followed by the pasting down of marbled papers for the covers and the endpapers.

Restoration Process — clockwise from top left, rebinding, backing, leather paring and casing in

You would probably notice that the endpapers were attached onto new flypapers instead of the original book. This allowed for maximum reversibility in the future if the books are damaged or if the owner wants to recommission a new binding for the books. The flypaper can simply be cut away and the original textblock can be removed.

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The completed restored books

In total, the entire job took about 2 months to complete. Considering that I have to juggle full-time work, weekend bookbinding workshops and other activities, the process proceeded very smoothly. While I cannot say I have acquired a fondness for law history, I did gain quite a bit of law knowledge flipping through the two books, especially on the rights each citizen is entitled to.

Weaving and Binding Pages of History — A Cultural Mapping Approach to Bookbinding

In August 2014, I had the privilege to collaborate with National Arts Council (Singapore) and Georgetown Festival (Penang, Malaysia) to launch a series of art exploration workshops which use cultural mapping techniques to rethink the format of classroom based craft learning.

Weaving and Binding Pages of History was envisioned to bring participants, particularly locals, closer to where they stay and to discover nuggets of history in their neighbourhoods. These nuggets of information are grouped within an umbrella theme (e.g. nature, history, culture, sports, etc) which also serves as the inspiration for them to create personalised covers and structures for the book.

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4 workshops, 2 in Singapore and 2 in Penang were created after a period of research and experimentation with potential book structures and art mediums. These 4 workshops are “Glorious stained glass and tiles in Bras Basah”, “Sacred tree and green spaces in Toa Payoh”, “Stories cast in stone, exploring Georgetown’s Chinese architectural symbolism” and “Penang and its world of spices”. 

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The format of the premise is straight-forward. Participants are first bought on a guided tour around the neighbourhood, understanding the history and culture of the vicinity. Thereafter, the theme for the day was announced and participants are given some time to collect found objects or raw materials to create their unique book. With the gathered items, everyone heads back to the classroom, discuss what and why they had gathered these objects. Then using suitable art mediums, participant create personalised designs on the covers and the book before finally binding the covers and text block together. Each workshop lasts about 4 – 6 hours and there is nary a dull moment in the workshop as each activity component actively engages everyone’s mind and hands. The required energy and input may be much higher than a typical bookbinding workshop but it definitely doubles the satisfaction level as well!

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By engaging participants to immerse in the community, the community will reciprocate by showing its vibrancy. Learning becomes interactive and the workshop becomes a two-way flow of information between the instructor and participants. Without venturing out, participants would not have realised the potential of their surroundings as a form art inspiration and likewise, the instructor would have underestimated the potential of each participant in creating works of art within a short time.

These four workshops have truly opened my eyes to the potential of using cultural mapping techniques even in 1 day craft and bookbinding workshops. In fact, I believed strongly in the potential of art as a community changemaker that I even gave a talk on the potential of simple art and craft as a way for everyone to create “mental maps” and “visual time capsules” for their surroundings!

For more pictures and information, visit my facebook album and see the Bookbinder and Flaneur presentation.

Report Card for [A Bookbinding Cause] Season 2

The last workshop for Season 2 of [ A Bookbinding Cause] was held on 31 May 2014, yet the season only came to a proper close last Sunday when The Thistle Bindery co-organised the first-ever bookbinding event for kids with the team behind Singapore Mini Makers Faire. Titled “Let’s Bind a Book”, the event held at Singapore Science Centre bought together fellow bookbinding instructors, co-instructors and friends whom I had the privilege to teach and meet during the course of Season 2’s [ A Bookbinding Cause ].

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Coptic Binding Workshop

It felt like a complete circle. I saw participants who came for their first taste of bookbinding returned for more workshops in subsequent months. With more practice and confidence, these participants stepped up to become co-instructors for the bookbinding event. Some even went the extra mile by taking the initiative to express their loves for bookbinding and urban sketching by leading a sketch walkabout during the bookbinding event. I felt humbled by their efforts and the hard work every instructor and co-instructor put in for the event.

Case Binding Workshop

Case Binding Workshop

Beyond the regular fortnightly workshops raising funds for charity, these “extra”-ordinary events, such as Let’s Bind a Book, Singapore Makers’ Meetup and Makers’ Block are important causes which The Thistle Bindery supports and participates in. They resonate with the practice’s twin objectives of making bookbinding accessible to all and supporting worthy causes. More so, such events are also excellent platforms for past participants of our workshops—now budding bookbinders—to showcase their bookbinding skills and to share their bookbinding passion with more people.

Maker's Meetup in Feb 2014

Maker’s Meetup in Feb 2014

Each update, photograph and news put up on Facebook in the first half of this year would not be possible without the support of our participants, collaborators and friends. It was a little overwhelming to realise that almost 100 people had attended the 8 workshops in the past season. This bought in a substantial amount of donation for our charity beneficiary, Loving Heart Multi-Service Centre.

The attendance figure and the amount of donation will pale in comparison to the support and effort from our venue supporters. Without the generous venue subsidiaries from The Arts House and The General Co, [ A Bookbinding Cause ] would not have taken off at all! Their steadfast support and accommodation provided the motivation and ease for the bindery to conceptualise and realise new programmes and collaborations.

The Thistle Bindery may carry different connotations to individuals. It could merely be a Facebook page of nominal interest; or it could simply just be a source of bookbinding instruction.  Yet personally, the impetus for starting the art practice then, and still holds true now, remains the desire to provide a platform for bookbinders and book arts instructors to gather and collaborate, and to grow the number of hobbyist bookbinders in Singapore.

The Thistle Bindery is an ever-growing community and [ A Bookbinding Cause] shall continue to be the practice’s flagship medium to attract more people to pick up the art of bookbinding.

A Manifesto for a Community Bindery

Pooja of Notabilia and I recently had the privilege to present a short 10 minutes presentation on Community Book Arts during the Maker Meetup event organised by SG Makers. It was a fantastic opportunity for me to rethink and set down what The Thistle Bindery meant for me, beyond just a hobbyist art practice that I started one year ago. This post is accompanied by slides presented in my segment.

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After conducting more than 20 workshops, the bindery had taken on a life of its own.  Similar to a real bindery business, I find myself dealing with everyday logistics problems and administrative issues such as looking for spaces to teach bookbinding workshops and sorting out sign-ups, payments and donations to the charity beneficiaries, etc.

There were also moments of contemplation and reflection. Tricks and tips simply learnt and absorbed during my training had to be rationalised and distilled to participants in my workshops. Tools that were not available in Singapore were substituted with those found easily in hardware stores and haberdashery shops, often after a long period of trials. This period of gestation before I started teaching in 2013 was an important time for me to become aware of the bare essentials in my craft and how the potential of simple tools can be maximised to perform as well as bookbinding specific tools such as laying presses, guillotine and rollers.

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What excited me the most was seeing how the book arts community had grown through the regular [ A Bookbinding Cause ] series of workshops. Familiar faces appear at consecutive workshops; contacts and connections were forged among participants and regular comments and messages were left on my Facebook page. What left the most indelible impression was perhaps realising how small and connected the creative circle in Singapore was. There are crafters who know makers, designers who talk to 3D printing tinkers, as well as a whole group of weekend artists with interesting day jobs and the passion to pursue their chosen craft in their free time. Initiatives such as Urban Sketchers and Sg Makers inspire and help define what it means to build a community. Particularly, the “many hands” approach in organising activities is important in vesting ownership in everyone and to allow events and encounters to happen spontaneously.

Building The Thistle Bindery allowed me to come in contact with many supportive people which I am indebted to. Some had came forward to provide a space for the charity bookbinding workshops, such as Jing, Colin and The Arts House; others who had given me a platform to test out ideas and showcase my skills, such as William and the wonderful girls from Trade School Singapore. Such avenues were and are still great training grounds for my practice and they helped build up my experiences incrementally towards loftier ideas like advocating the use of bookbinding and other artistic mediums in cultural mapping and urban studies activities.

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The Thistle Bindery’s bookbinding pursuit can be represented in a wider community context akin to a drop in a pool. A pool of like-minded crafters, educators and thinkers, not just in Singapore, but regionally and internationally.

At the apex of the practice is a constant yearning to learn more advanced bookbinding techniques and at the same time, to regularly rekindle the love for the craft and to connect with my beginning. Owl and Lion, where I first learnt bookbinding will always be a magical place of endless possibilities.

The core of the practice will still focus on bookbinding workshops where I hope more people will be interested to learn. [ A Bookbinding Cause ] remains as the practice’s flagship programme and vehicle to raise funds for charity while imparting traditional bookbinding skills at affordable rates.

As the current season of bookbinding workshops come to a close in end May, it is yet again time to plan the calendar for the second half of the year. There will be interesting activities for the community, not just in Singapore but also regionally. There will also be interactions with other bookbinders from around the region. And at the end of the day, the most important is still to ensure that coming for one of The Thistle Bindery’s activity remains enjoyable, fun-filled and relaxing. 🙂

A Set of Rebound Newsletters

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I recently had the opportunity to rebind a set of newsletter from a defunct political party in Singapore. The Barisan Socialis was formed in 1961, and was led by Dr Lee Siew Chor until 1988 when it merged with Workers’ Party. More information can be obtained from Wikipedia if you are interested.

I will not delve much into the party’s history as I would like to focus on the rebinding of the set of newsletters. It contained 100 issues of the party’s newsletter spanning from 1961 to 1964. The newsletters were bound in four sets of soft Kraft paper covers and secured with three metal staples along margins of its long edge. As expected, the staples rusted over the years and the metal oxide deposits had caused the surrounding paper to be stained with a ring of orange rust. The punctured areas had also became friable and in some newsletters, the holes were enlarged and no longer held by the metal staples.

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Other defects included frayed edges along the fore edge of the bound volumes and damaged book spines. Cellophane tape was also used to hold the volumes together and these had become stiff and stained over the years.

The first step in rebinding the volumes involved removing all the metal staples and cutting away the damaged spines, leaving loose sheets consisting of individual newsletters and original volume covers. Cellophone tapes were then removed carefully, particularly in areas where tape was used to patch long tears, in order to prevent further damage to the pages. These were then backed with a thin almost translucent Kozo paper. Thankfully there were few tears and the tears appeared on volumes which were printed single sided using silkscreen.

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Volumes were then bounded with new cards with colours complementary to the original covers. The two new cards, one on either ends, serve as end papers to the new book block. The entire stack was then bored through using a fine 0.5mm drill bit. The new holes were made about 1cm adjacent to the original staple holes. Reusing the previously stapled holes was not an option as the surrounding paper had became friable due to the rusting.

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The newsletters were then stitched up in Japanese Stab Binding style. The perforations followed the original positions of the staples in the new exposed binding along the long edge. Two styles were adopted. First, the binding was left exposed on the end papers. Second, the stab binding was covered by end papers.

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Four original cover designs

A new buckram hard cover was then attached to the completed book block. Similar to the end papers, colours of the buckram was chosen to complement the end papers and the original soft covers. To differentiate between the four volumes, an embossed pattern was made on each of the covers. The pattern consist of the defunct party emblem and the sequence number of each volume from 1 to 4. All these embossed patterns were drawn and cut by hand.

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After each of the four book blocks were cased in, they were left in the nipping press overnight to ensure that the end papers have been firmly attached to the covers.

It had been a hectic March for me with the two bookbinding workshops and other work activities. It did affect the progress of rebinding this set of rare newsletters. Nonetheless I am glad it is completed and the four volumes will hopefully be kept in good reading condition for a long while more.

Making your own starch paste

Many people had asked me about making starch paste since all our bookbinding workshops use copious amounts of this wonderful natural, non-toxic glue .

I have never treated starch paste making as a science, you know, like having fixed amount of water added to starch powder and how hot the temperature must be or how long to cool it, etc. Instead, it is mostly through trial and error, adding additional amounts of water on the fly and if the mixture did not turn out well, then start over again.

But I thought it will be good to share how I normally do my glue and to explain briefly the science behind starch making.

Starch is present in plants as a form of storage. It is a complex carbohydrates that has powerful thickening properties. When starch is combined with water or another liquid and heated, individual starch granules absorb the liquid and swell. This process, known as gelatinisation, is what causes the liquid to thicken.

There are various types of starch, grinded into powder form available in Singapore. There is the common corn/maize starch, tapioca starch and yam starch. Notice most of these starch are either root based or cereal based, where these plant parts are used to store food for the plant. Gelatinisation occurs at different temperatures for different types of starch. As a general rule of thumb, root-based starches thicken at lower temperatures whereas cereal-based starches thicken at higher temperatures.

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My preference is to use corn starch since it is cheap and readily available at all provision stores and supermarkets. I have a shallow enamel plate which I use for cooking starch paste. The plate is filled up evenly with starch to about half of its depth before water is added. As starch molecules will absorb water and clump together, it is important to keep stirring and to make sure no lumps are formed. Add enough water to form an even white mixture where you can see the starch powder suspended in the water.

The mixture is then placed over a small flame, again with constant stirring to ensure even heating throughout. The shallow flat plate is good as the heat is spread out over a larger surface area instead of a container with a tapering small bottom that concentrates heating at the bottom.

As you stir the heated mixture, you will encounter some resistance as the starch undergoes gelatinization, once a clear, gooey paste starts forming, off the fire but let the plate sit on the stove. Continue stirring as the rest of the mixture literally hardens as you stir.

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The finished paste should have the consistency of sticky red bean paste and a translucent colour. Once done, cool the paste in a glue container. I normally fill up to half the depth of the container so that I can add in white glue or PVA up to one third depth of the glue container.

Stir the white glue/starch paste mixture well. The more liquid glue and the thicker paste should eventually form a mix that has the consistency of runny mayonnaise. The starch glue is the element that gives adherence between paper and boards without leaving unsightly glue stains from over application, whereas the white glue allows the mixture to dry more quickly.

The starch glue can be stored and used for about 5 to 7 days before mould starts to set on the surface of the mixture. I do not refrigerate my mixture to keep it longer as it will harden very quickly.

Hope the guide has been useful and keep trying!

Three days at Sydney Bookbinding

The past Chinese New Year must count as one of my most enriching and enjoyable.

I had the privilege to spend three fulfilling days with Rosemarie and Terence of Sydney Bookbinding. Rosemarie and her husband Kelvin are also owners of a specialty decorative paper and printing company, Amazing Papers. Combined, you get a quaint bindery nestled within a substantial showroom of decorative printed papers and Japanese chiryogami papers. Pure bliss for paper aficionados, I must say!

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Papers aside, the main purpose of the trip was to take bookbinding tuition from Rosemarie in order to brush up my skills. Of course, prior to the trip, I have looked up Rosemarie’s blog and realised she is teaching the Dos Rapporte book structure and that got me excited! The Dos Rapporte structure is designed by a UK based bookbinder, Benjamin Elbel. On his website, the structure is described as “a very special spine opening that allows for very flat opening” The name, in French which means “hooked on spine” also indicates that the spine, the covers and the book block are made seperately.

What makes Rosemarie’s take on Dos Rappporte structure special is how she had developed her own binding technique through a series of tests and trials together with her fellow bookbinder Terence. Rosemarie bought me through the process of building the book from scratch: sewing on tapes, rounding and finishing the book block, sewing on the headbands, measuring and making the spine piece and attaching the covers.

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The third day of my bookbinding tuition was spent on learning how to do gold tooling using hand tools and a heated stylus. Rosemarie demonstrated and shared her collection of hand tools, pallets and fillets with me. I had a most agonising time…not because the techniques were difficult but rather there were quite a few tools to play with and I was at a loss over what I should use for the session!

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Throughout the three days, Rosemarie had been very patient, meticulous in her teaching and most willing to share little gems of knowledge that will help me in future teaching. As a bonus, Terence also gave some pointers on selecting and sharpening my leather paring knives which are definitely invaluable!

With my completed Dos Rapporte book, new bookbinding knowledge and a complete piece of Kangaroo hide bought from Rosemarie, I am definitely prepared for the new season of [A Bookbinding Cause] starting in less than two weeks (gasp!).

A Book Written in Sime Road Camp During WW2

Happy Lunar New Year! I recently stumbled upon an interesting listing in ebay for a Genuine Typewritten Book from World War 2 Prisoner-of-War Sime Camp in Singapore. Given that Singapore fell to the Japanese on 15 Feb 1942, the first day of the Lunar Calendar that year, it is appropriate that I discuss a wartime book during this period!

The posting for the WW2 book immediately piqued my interest. The location seemed correct. Sime Road Camp was used as a POW camp during WW2. A lot of the British and Australian troops were also interred there from 1942 to 1945 during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore.

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The book appears to be typed on a very thin, almost translucent paper where one could easily see the text on the other face. The cover appears to be a simple 1- section case bound book. The pictures do not show the type of  sewing but from the way the book opens, it should be a single section that is stitched together with a 3 to 5 hole pamphlet sewing. The covers are wrapped with a plain light blue paper where some parts appeared to have delaminated, revealing the brownish laminated kraft board below.

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All in all, the book looks plain and simple, definitely befitting of a wartime document/book! Historically, most POW and veterans remembered the wartime “Changi University”. Described by George Sproud in his book Bamboo Round my Shoulders, books were given to POWs to “prevent disaffection and thoughts of escaping”. I attach a longer quote from the book below, taken off the website of ABC Australia:

The colonel [Colonel ‘Black Jack Galleghan] came up with another winner; to prevent disaffection and thoughts of escape, as he put it to the Japanese commandant, books were the answer, and furthermore he knew where to put his hands on some. Consequently a convoy of lorries descended on Changi and the entire contents of the Singapore Library were shovelled in.

And what books! Choice items that had been banned in Australia for years. Australia in those days was running neck and neck with Ireland for book-banning championship of the world… The more serious volumes were also avidly seized upon, and soon the camp was full of people studying law, medicine, astronomy, thermodynamics and all kinds of professions they envisaged taking up when the blessed day of freedom dawned.

George Sprod – Bamboo Round My Shoulders
(Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/changi/life/university.htm)

Now, this book in question could possibly indicate that a seperate Wartime University was in place at Sime Road Camp as well! The banality of the topic “Some Notes on Cheese” also fitted with the historical description that while some prisoners of war in Changi were studying subjects that had practical applications, others were just studying for interest and to “escape the drudgery of camp life.”

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By 1945, the war was reaching its tail-end. The book, dated August 1945, was probably written in a period of transition. In the same month, the Japanese had surrendered. This meant that the writer, provided that he is a Allied soldier, was most likely in the process of being repatriated back to his country of origin. Interesting enough, Sime Road Camp was used as a transit camp after the end of the war. Many interned soldiers continue to stay in the POW camp instead of returning to their own camps as the inbound Military Administration had taken over their accomodation. Below is an excerpt taken from Infopedia (http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_1769_2011-02-14.html):

In 1944, more than 3,000 military prisoners from Changi were transferred to Sime Road Camp to make way for more prisoners from Selarang.  Towards the end of the war, some prisoners who survived the building of the “Death Railway” in Burma were also interned at the camp. By the time of their release, there were 4,507 persons from 27 nationalities in the camp, including 1,023 women and 328 children. The British formed the largest proportion of the population but there were also significant numbers of Eurasians, Australians, Jews, Chinese and Poles. They were reportedly treated relatively better than prisoners of other Japanese camps in places such as Sumatra or even Changi in Singapore. However, many prisoners died in the camp, for instance, the editor and managing director of the Malay Mail, Mr. J. H. M. Robson. After the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Japanese administrators of the camp were arrested as the British military administration carried out a full investigation into the conditions in the Sime Road and Changi camps.

Transit camp
After the Japanese surrender, internees at Sime Road Camp were released by the following month. However, a curfew was initially imposed on released internees and they were advised to stay in the camp for their own safety. Released internees were given a small amount of money dubbed the “Freedom Fiver”. Non-Europeans were given half the amount that European internees were given, causing some unhappiness. Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten and Lady Mountbatten visited the camp in September 1945, bringing messages from relatives and friends overseas as well as food parcels.

During the subsequent months, Sime Road Camp became a place of transition for former prisoners before they could find accommodation or were repatriated. The use of Sime Road Camp as a transit camp for internees led to a great deal of unhappiness, since it meant that they had to return to their site of internment. It was also alleged that the camp was used because the prisoners’ homes in Singapore had been taken over by military authorities.

A few hundred internees were repatriated home by sea and air, but some internees were so dissatisfied with the conditions in the ships provided for them that they returned to the camp in protest. Some internees chose to stay behind to help in the rebuilding of Malaya and Singapore. Workers at the Sime Road Camp stayed on to look after the needs of the displaced people who were still in the camp. These people were largely unable to find employment or accommodation in Singapore, although they were local residents. The camp therefore became a transit centre for former internees and other such displaced persons. Social and recreational facilities were provided and sanitary conditions were improved. The inhabitants of the camp were known as “campers”. To help them, the colonial government gave cash grants to those leaving the camp. By October 1945, only about 351 people remained in the camp.

In July 1946, it was announced that the camp would be closed down and its remaining destitute campers were sent to settlement homes in Poh Leung Kuk at York Hill.

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Caption for Picture: JAPANESE OCCUPATION, 1942 TO 1945 : SIME ROAD CAMP, SYONAN-TO.  WOMEN INTERNEES READING BOOKS IN THE TATTERED LIBRARY SET UP IN THE LAVATORY (National Archives of Singapore Collection, Photo Accession No: 2006-004244-NARA)

It is amazing how a book from a forgotten era can trigger so much research to find out more about the time period. While a book may be constructed simply and without much aesthetic consideration, the meaning embodied within such books carry a lot more significance for the rest of us.